Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī

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Persian mathematician Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī, sometimes known arsenic the begetter of algebra, was 1 of the astir influential thinkers of each time. He revolutionised algebra and his seminal works successful mathematics, astronomy and geography person proved to beryllium the keystone for centuries of advances crossed the world.

Al-Khwarizmi was calved successful astir AD 780, and though his birthplace isn’t known for sure, the al-Khwārizmī successful his sanction tin mean “the autochthonal of Khwarazm”, which astatine the clip was portion of Greater Iran, but is present portion of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, truthful galore judge helium grew up successful that area.

Al-Khwārizmī worked astatine and past became manager of the House of Wisdom successful Baghdad, successful modern-day Iraq, which was the superior of the Islamic empire astatine the time. At this centre of technological probe and teaching, helium oversaw the translation of galore large Greek and Indian mathematical and astronomy works into Arabic. He besides produced archetypal enactment that had a lasting power connected the beforehand of Muslim and European mathematics.

The laminitis of algebra

The presumption algebra and algorithm are derived from al-Khwārizmī’s sanction and his work. A Latinisation of his sanction arsenic Algoritmi led to the word “algorithm”. And the connection algebra comes from al-jabr successful the rubric of a landmark publication helium wrote successful astir AD 820, al-Kitāb al-Mukhtaṣar fī Ḥisāb al-Jabr wal-Muqābalah, oregon The Compendious Book connected Calculation by Completion and Balancing. The publication introduced cardinal methods for solving equations and established the subject of algebra.

Al-Jabr itself means “restoration” and refers to adding a fig to some sides of an equation to consolidate oregon cancel terms. However, al-Khwārizmī utilized words to explicate mathematical problems, and diagrams to lick them alternatively than the benignant of algebraic notation mostly utilized today.

The publication showed however to lick polynomial equations, and algebraic methods of penning an look successful a simpler form, a maneuver known arsenic reduction. It besides covered cardinal concepts specified arsenic moving a antagonistic quantity from 1 broadside of an equation to the different and changing its sign, called completion, and subtracting the aforesaid quantity from some sides, known arsenic balancing. In particular, al-Khwārizmī developed a look for systematically solving quadratic equations by utilizing completion and balancing to trim immoderate equation to 1 that is solvable.

Master of algorithms

Influenced by the translations done successful the House of Wisdom, al-Khwārizmī came to spot the large imaginable of the Hindu numerical system. His enactment connected arithmetic utilizing 1 to 9 and the fig 0 was yet liable for introducing what we present telephone Hindu-Arabic numerals oregon Arabic numerals, archetypal to the Islamic satellite and past to the Western world.

His revolutionary attack to mathematics has made our existent algorithmically based computers possible, but helium didn’t invent algorithms. Arithmetic algorithms were utilized as acold backmost arsenic astir 2500 BC by the past Babylonians.

Al-Khwārizmī is besides said to person developed the lattice, oregon sieve, multiplication method of multiplying ample numbers. His lattice method was introduced into Europe by Italian mathematician Fibonacci, which helped dispersed his enactment successful the West.

Astronomical breakthroughs

The works that al-Khwārizmī conducted went acold beyond maths. He made important contributions to astronomy, processing the archetypal quadrant for determining the clip by observing the prima oregon stars. He compiled a acceptable of astronomical tables, known arsenic Zīj al-Sindhind (Astronomical tables of Siddhanta), based connected galore Hindu and Greek sources, and covering aspects including calculating the positions of the sun, satellite and planets, and erstwhile eclipses would happen.

Al-Khwārizmī besides improved the mentation and operation of sundials, and, due to the fact that of his work, sundials were often placed connected mosques to amusement the clip of prayer. His enactment successful this tract led him to constitute respective different works including describing the rules for erstwhile definite events should beryllium connected the Hebrew calendar.

The main different country that al-Khwārizmī produced important works successful was geography. His Kitāb ṣūrat al-arḍ (The Image of the Earth; and often translated arsenic Geography), fundamentally covered the satellite arsenic it was known then. Supervising immoderate 70 geographers, helium revised and expanded Egyptian polymath Ptolemy’s earlier enactment connected geography to screen the coordinates of immoderate 2400 places passim the world, peculiarly astir the Mediterranean Sea and cities successful Africa and Asia, including lists with latitudes and longitudes, cities, seas, mountains, islands and rivers.

He besides assisted successful the operation of a representation of the satellite for his patron, the caliph Al-Ma’mun, and was portion of a task to find Earth’s circumference to its astir close measurement yet.

Al-Khwārizmī died successful astir AD 850, having done works that would extremity up shaping the aboriginal of the world. He influenced medieval mathematicians Fibonacci, Alberd and Roger Bacon, but done his crafting of algebra, helium has fundamentally influenced each mathematician since.

Key facts

Full name: Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī

Born: c. 780 Khwarazm, Persia (possibly)

Died: c. 850 aged astir 70 successful Baghdad, Iraq

Persian polymath Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī is celebrated for producing captious works successful mathematics, astronomy and geography.

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